Academic Communications Samples

Below please find some partial samples of our work

Sample One

Achieving sustainable development of financial institutions has been at the forefront of the world agenda since the end of the recent economic crisis in 2008-2009. Prudent supervision of the banking sector is critical to reach this goal. Russia ranks third in the number of banks globally, after the United States and Germany. However, Russia’s major bank, The Bank of Russia, lacks the necessary resources to organize regular field inspections of a large number of its banks. This is why The Bank of Russia urgently needs a remote system to monitor the national-banking sector. This system should enable the most vulnerable banks to be identified and properly supervised to improve banking-sector stability.

The probability-of-default (PD) model constitutes a possible instrument to address this problem. The PD shows the likelihood of a bank failure over a fixed assessment period. This paper reviews binary choice models that attempt to describe, predict, and prevent defaults of Russian banks with regard to national-banking sector peculiarities. To achieve this, we have utilized the experience of PD model creation for emerging economies, i.e., BRICS and Eastern Europe. The majority of existing work on the Russian banking experience examines the collapse of the Russian banking system in 1998. However, the rules of the game and the economic environment have dramatically changed since that time.

Sustainable development of financial institutions has been on world agenda since the end of the recent crisis in 2008-2009. Prudent supervision of the banking sector is important to reach this goal. Russia takes third place in number of banks after the USA and Germany: there are about 900 operating banks. At the same The Bank of Russia lacks resources organize field inspections of a large number of banks regularly. That is why The Bank of Russia needs a remote system to monitor the national banking sector. The most vulnerable banks should be identified and supervised properly to make the banking sector more stable.

The probability of default model is a possible instrument to address this problem. The probability of default (PD) shows the likelihood of a bank failure over a fixed assessment period. This paper reviews binary choice models that attempt to describe, predict and prevent the defaults of Russian banks with regard to national banking sector peculiarities. We have used the experience of PD model creation for the emerging economies, namely, BRICS and Eastern Europe. The majority of existing papers about the Russian experience examine the collapse of the Russian banking system in 1998. However the rules of the game and the economic environment have dramatically changed since then.

Sample Two

In recent years, crack extraction and classification of actual pavement sections has constituted one of the central topics in highway transportation applications. Crack detection is a particularly critical aspect of pavement maintenance. It enables a growing body of knowledge about real pavement cracks in terms of their shapes and types, and informs optimal maintenance decisions. Therefore, crack detection data archiving and recording are currently performed due to a huge increase in traffic volume on roads, differences in weather conditions, and poor asphalt materials. As the Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USACERL) states (citation), “More than 560 million square yards of actual pavement sections largely requires a methodical objective procedure of determining existing cracks for maintenance priorities and rehabilitation (M&R) strategies”. It is clear that crack detection for all pavement sections of all countries should be performed and made easily accessible to asset managers. However, many challenges exist in crack detection and classification plans associated with executed data acquisition methodologies, data arrangement and archiving, data analysis, and data verification objectives. Thus, a complete systematic procedure for crack extraction and classification is urgently needed (citation).

Over recent years, the crack extraction and classification of the actual pavement sections has been one of the most motivating subjects in highway transportation applications. Crack detection is main and indispensable for maintenance priorities. It builds knowledge about the available real pavement cracks for better understanding of its shapes, evaluating its types, and taking correct maintenance decisions. Therefore, the crack detection data archiving and recording is still considerable at the current time as an outcome of a huge increase in traffic volumes over roads, vagaries of the weather and bad asphalt materials. As the Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USACERL), USA notes (citation), “More than 560 million square yards of actual pavement sections largely requires a methodical objective procedure of determining existing cracks for maintenance priorities and rehabilitation (M&R) strategies”. It is clear that crack detection for all pavement sections of all countries should be performed and made easily attainable from the asset manager’s side. However, there are many challenges in crack detection and classification plans associated with the executed data acquisition methodologies, data arrangement and archiving, data analysis, and data verification objectives. Thus, a complete systematic procedure for crack extraction and classification is eligible (citation).

Sample Three

In the winter of 1863, the first 13 Korean immigrants to Russia settled in the valley of the Tizinkhe River, which is located 5 km north of the Posyet Port of Novgorod Bay, across the Duman River at the border of Hamgyeong-bukdo. They were illegal residents and stateless, without possessing any official documents issued by either Soviet Russia or the Joseon Dynasty. In fact, their settlement in the area constituted a life-threatening action because they would be subject to summary execution if they were caught by border guards. In an effort to increase their security, Korean families requested official permission from First Lieutenant Rezanov at Novgrod to legitimately reside in the area, as well as secure his protection from the Red Turban rebellion, which involved horse-riding marauders in the Manchuria area. In response to this request, the Russian government not only authorized their legal residency in the area, but also provided them with food and agricultural supplies for farming.


In the winter of 1863, first Korean 13 immigrants to Russia settled down at the Valley of Tizinkhe River, which is 5 Kilometers north away from the Posyet Port of the Novgorod Bay across the Duman River at the borderline of Hamgyeong-bukdo. They were illegal residents without holding any official document issued by either Soviet Russia or the Joseon Dynasty. It was a life risk challenge for them to settle at the area because they knew whoever was caught by the borderline guard would be subject to an execution. The Korean families requested First Lieutenant Rezanov at Novgrod a permission to reside in the area and his protection to be protected from the Red Turban rebellion, who were horse riding marauders prevailed in the Manchuria area in that time. Upon this request, the Russian government not only authorized their legal residency at the area but also provided them with foods and seeds for farming.

Sample Four

The Qaidam Basin is a meso-cenozoic continental facies petroliferous basin circumscribed by three mountain systems: the Altun Mountains, the Kunlun Mountains, and the Qilian Mountains (citation). The formation and evolution of the Cenozoic reservoir in the west area of the Qaidam Basin are affected by subduction of the Indian Plate, uplifting of the Qinghai – Tibetan Plateau, strike-slip of the Altyn Tagh Fault, as well as new special and complex orogeny and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions and distribution characteristics. The current structural framework of the Yingxi area was formed under the influence of multi-phase tectonic activities of the Himalaya movement. The fault system and trap generated through tectonic stress provided favorable conditions for petroleum and gas enrichment, and hydrocarbon accumulation. In addition, the derived fracture system constitutes not only a petroleum and gas migration channel, but is also of critical significance as a reservoir.

Qaidam Basin is a meso-cenozoic continental facies petroliferous basin sandwiched by three mountain systems: Altun Mountains, Kunlun Mountains and Qilian Mountains (citation). Formation and evolution of cenozoic reservoir in West area of Qaidam Basin are affected by subduction of the Indian plate, uplifting of Qinghai – Tibetan Plateau, strike-slip of Altyn Tagh Fault and new orogeny and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions and distribution characteristics are special and complex. Current structural framework of Yingxi area is formed under the influence of multi-phase tectonic activities of Himalaya movement. The fault system and trap generated through tectonic stress provide favorable conditions for petroleum & gas enrichment and hydrocarbon accumulation and the derived fracture system is not only the petroleum & gas migration channel, but also is of important significance in reservoir.

Sample Five

One of the primary functions of scientific data is to serve as evidence for argumentation in scientific research (citation). The sharing and reuse of scientific data facilitates research progress and findings, increases exchange and comparison among academic fields and sub-fields, and accelerates problem-solving and disciplinary advancement (citations). For instance, the Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) requires participants to adopt a unified dataset released on the same track to collaboratively promote the resolution of issues related to information retrieval. In addition, the ArrayExpress Archive has become a major resource for the research community for reusing data from high-throughput functional genomics experiments.

Digital scientific data are extraordinary, in terms of both quantity and quality. Ever increasing data repositories, especially in the fields of biology, medicine, earth science, etc., are being developed and deployed (citations). Consequently, data-related research, such as data-use tracking (citations), motivations and influences of data-sharing (citations), and dataset evaluation is flourishing. These studies are committed to exploring the value of scientific data as a type of emerging academic resource. However, it is worth noting that the basis of the above endeavors is to extract data-use statements (DUS) from extant academic literature in an effective manner. DUS refers to identifying statements in academic literature which identify how scientific data are obtained, processed, and utilized by author(s). While previous studies have mainly focused on extracting data-sharing or data-citation statements, few studies have specifically examined extracting DUS. Furthermore, the approaches in previous studies are mostly semi-automatic or human-intensive.


Scientific data functions as the evidence of argumentation for scientific research (citation). Sharing and reuse of scientific data help to repeat research progress and findings, boost exchange and comparison among academic thoughts, and accelerate problems solving and disciplinary progress (citations). For instance, Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) requires participants to adopt a unified dataset released on the same track to promote collaboratively resolve issues related to information retrieval; ArrayExpress Archive has become a major resource for the research community to reuse data from high-throughput functional genomics experiments.

Digital scientific data extraordinarily stands out both in quantity and quality. More and more data repositories, especially in biology, medicine and earth science, etc., are getting developed and deployed (citations).Consequently, data-related research such as data use tracking (citations), motivations and influences of data sharing (citations), and dataset evaluation flourishes. These studies are committed to exploration of the value of the scientific data as a kind of emerging academic resources. However, it is worthy of being noted that the basis of the endeavors above is to extract data use statements (DUS) from academic literature in an effective way. DUS refers to identifying the statements in academic literature which state how scientific data is obtained, processed, and utilized by author(s). Few studies have focused on extracting DUS while the previous studies are mainly on extracting data sharing or data citation statements. Furthermore, the approaches in previous studies are mostly semi-automatic or human-intensive.

Sample Six

Promoting digital certificates has proven difficult, even with a large amount of funding and effort. One example of this kind of promotion is the Hong Kong Government’s campaign in January 2000. Although the campaign was a failure, we can learn crucial lessons from it and avoid making similar mistakes in the future. Hong Kong Post is assigned the role of recognized CA under the Electronic Transaction Ordinance in Hong Kong. The Hong Kong Government orchestrated many activities to promote it, such as spending a tremendous amount of money on promotion and advertisements, in such venues as newspapers and television.

The cost of a digital certificate is HKD$50. In order to create a critical mass of personal users and to promote the development of electronic business, Hong Kong Post offered the general public an option to embed a digital certificate in their new smart identity card for one year for free. This free “e-Cert” program began in June 2003 and ended in March 2007.

This was a particularly expeditious concept because Hong Kong law requires all citizens to carry ID cards with them whenever they travel outside of their homes. Thus, users can always use digital certificates because their cards are always in their wallets. In this way, they are not burdened with having to carry an extra USB flash drive. This constitutes a unique program to Hong Kong. It was generally expected to be a success and that Hong Kong Post would generate an appropriate profit.


Promoting the digital certificate is difficult, even with a large funding and a lot of efforts. One example is Hong Kong Government’s campaign in January 2000. It will be interesting to examine this failure case. We can learn the lesson and avoid similar mistakes in the future.

Hongkong Post is assigned the role of recognized CA under the Electronic Transaction Ordinance in Hong Kong. A vast amount of money has been spent on promotion and advertisements such as newspaper and television. The Hong Kong Government had arranged a lot of activities to promote it.

The cost of digital certificate is HKD$50. In order to create a critical mass of personal users and to promote the development of electronic business, Hong Kong Post offered the general public an option to embed a digital certificate in their new smart identity card with a year of free use. This free e-Cert program was started in June 2003 and ended in March 2007.

This was a good idea because all citizens are required to carry their ID card by Hong Kong’s law whenever they go outside their home. Thus users can always use the digital certificates because the card is always in the wallet. They don’t need to carry a USB flash drive. This is unique to Hong Kong. People expected that this operation will be a success and Hong Kong Post will make a profit.

Sample Seven

On New Year’s Eve, every family is normally replete with love, warmth, and happiness. On a particular New Year’s Eve, however, an explosive news headline attracted the attention of millions of people all over China. A 34-year-old delivery woman, suffering from hypertension and preeclampsia, was admitted to the Third Hospital of Beijing University. After approximately 15 days of treatment, she complained of chest pain, which was followed by sudden cardiac arrest. Despite all of the multidisciplinary team’s intensive attempts to rescue her, she died soon afterwards. Her family immediately became enraged, smashing objects and behaving aggressively towards medical staff. Her unit, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, also released an official statement that vehemently condemned the hospital. The media used an eye-catching title to attract widespread attention by declaring that the Chinese Academy of Sciences had declared an all-out war on Chinese Medical University. Afterwards, a postmortem examination confirmed that the patient died of aortic dissection with a rupture into the pleural cavity.

On the eve of New Year, every family is full of love, joy and happiness. A sudden explosive head-line news attracted the attention of millions of people all over the China. A thirty-four years old delivery woman suffering from hypertension and preeclampsia was admitted to the Third Hospital of Beijing University. After half a month treatment, the patient complained of chest pain and followed by sudden cardiac arrest. Despite all their intensive efforts, the multidisciplinary team attempts to rescue her, but she still died soon afterwards. Her family became very angry immediately, began to smash items, aggressively chased medical staff. Her unit-Chinese Academy of Science- also sent an official document to vehemently condemn the hospital. So, the media used an eye-catching title to draw the attention-Chinese Academy of Science declared war on Chinese Medical University! Afterwards, postmortem examination confirmed that the patient died of aortic dissection with rupture into the pleural cavity.

Sample Eight

The direction of an incoming dust storm is important for calculating the amount of dust storm particles that are deposited in the seas. (citation) used statistics regarding the direction of dust storms over Qingdao and found that the dust storms came from north and northwest 118 times out of a total of 158 times, which constitutes 74.8% of the total number of dust storms occurring from 1961-2004. Considering that these dust storms are mainly from the northwest, west and north, Qingdao and Korea provide critical locations for ground measurements. In March and April, mass concentrations of coarse particles in Qingdao accounted for 80% and 62% of the total dust storm occurrence, respectively. The dry deposition flux in Qingdao is between (data), with an average value of (data) (citation). However, since some dust storms did not pass over Qingdao, these results can only partially explain the amount of sediment deposition. At the ground sampling sites on the Korean Peninsula, high dust concentrations of up to (data) have been observed, with dust sources in North China and Mongolia (citation).

Direction of incoming duststorm is important for calculating duststorm’s particles deposited in the seas. Geng (2006) used statistics for the direction of duststorm over Qingdao and found that 118 times out of a total of 158 times the duststorm came from north and northwest, which is 74.8% of the total duststorms during1961-2004 Considering the duststorms entered the South YES are mainly from northwest, west and north, Qingdao and Korea provide important locations for ground measurements. In March and April, mass concentrations of coarse particles in Qingdao account for 80% and 62% of the total duststorm occurrence, respectively. The dry deposition flux in Qingdao is between (data), with an averaged value of (data) (citation). However, these results can only partially explain the sediment deposition in the YES, for some duststorms that entered the South YES did not pass over Qingdao. At the ground sampling sites on the Korean Peninsula, high dust concentration of up to 1110μg m−3 has been observed, with dust sources in North China and Mongolia (citation).